By Pierre Van Der Eng
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Extra info for Agricultural Growth in Indonesia: Productivity Change and Policy Impact since 1880
The deduction for current inputs used in the production of farm cash crops and estate crops were approximated with coefficients from the Input-Output Tables for 1971,1975,1980 and 1985. During the 1970s and 1980s the margin between the value of gross output and GVA remained relatively constant at 13-14 per cent. 8. This implies that the total cost of chemical fertiliser as a per centage of gross output hardly changed and that the price of fertiliser has fallen considerably relative to product prices.
They were also for the production of manure, for transport, slaughter, and more recently for dairy production. Data on the stock of horses are also available, but these animals were mainly used for transport in Indonesia. The stock of buffaloes and cows will be used below as a proxy for capital input. There may have been a change in the quality of the stock of cattle. Appendix 5 shows that the share of cows in Java increased from 42 per cent in 1880 to 65 per cent in 1940 and 82 per cent in 1990.
The choice of the population growth rate makes some difference to total production. But it does not affect the general trend, nor does it affect the estimate of per capita GVA. Agricultural subsistence production clearly dominated total agricultural output in the Other Islands, despite the rapid growth in the production of cash and estate crops. 2 Note: Annual average growth rates calculated from five-year averages, of which the first year is given. Sources: Appendices 1 and 2. 2 17 Barter terms of trade of cash-estate crops and food crops, 1880-1993 (1960=100) 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 -"— Five-Year Average Sources: Appendices 1 and 2.
Agricultural Growth in Indonesia: Productivity Change and Policy Impact since 1880 by Pierre Van Der Eng