Read e-book online Abductive Cognition: The Epistemological and Eco-Cognitive PDF

By Lorenzo Magnani

ISBN-10: 3642036309

ISBN-13: 9783642036309

This quantity explores abductive cognition, a major yet, a minimum of until eventually the 3rd region of the final century, overlooked subject in cognition. The ebook goals at expanding wisdom approximately artistic and specialist inferences. The research of those high-levelmethods of abductive reasoning is located on the crossroads of philosophy, common sense, epistemology, synthetic intelligence, neuroscience, cognitive psychology, animal cognition and evolutionary theories; that's, on the middle of cognitive technological know-how. Philosophers of technology within the 20th century have often uncommon among the inferential approaches lively within the common sense of discovery and those lively within the common sense of justification. so much have concluded that no common sense of artistic methods exists and, in addition, rational version of discovery is most unlikely. briefly, clinical artistic inferences are irrational and there's no “reasoning” to hypotheses. nonetheless, a little analysis within the region of synthetic intelligence has proven that equipment for discovery may be came upon which are computationally sufficient for rediscovering – or gaining knowledge of for the 1st time – empirical or theoretical legislation and theorems.

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Pizzi, 2006; Pizzi, 2007], on abduction and fallacies cf. [Woods, 2007; Woods, 2010]. 5 below). 590] (see also [Hintikka, 1998]). 1 Abduction and Induction in Logic Programming The syllogistic account of abduction we described above is the starting point of much research in AI and logic programming devoted to perform tasks such as diagnosis in medical reasoning and planning. In these logical and computational accounts abduction and induction are considered as separate forms of reasoning related to different tasks.

The nonmonotonic character of the ST-model arises not only from the above mentioned nonmonotonic character of deductive inference type involved in it, but also from the logical unsoundness of the ascending part of the cycle guessing hypotheses to be tested. [Doyle, 1988] pointed out that, since their unsoundness, these guesses do not exhibit the truth-preservative behavior of ideal rationality characterizing the incremental deduction of classical logic, but the nonmonotonic behavior of limited rationality of commonsense reasoning [Simon, 1969], that allows to discharge and abandon old hypotheses to make possible the tentative adoption of new ones.

1]. 4 23 Sentential Abduction Sentential abduction can be rendered in different ways. For example, in the syllogistic framework we have just described abduction is considered like something propositional and as a type of fallacious reasoning. If we want to model abduction in a computational logic-based system, the fundamental operation is search [Thagard, 1996]. When there is a problem to solve, we usually face several possibilities (hypotheses) and we have to select the suitable one (cf. selective abduction, above).

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Abductive Cognition: The Epistemological and Eco-Cognitive Dimensions of Hypothetical Reasoning by Lorenzo Magnani

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