By Alex M. Andrew
The relative failure of makes an attempt to investigate and version intelligence should be attributed partly to the general assumption that the processing of constant variables and the manipulation of discrete suggestions might be handled individually. during this e-book, the writer considers concept-based suggestion as having developed from processing of continuing variables. even supposing "fuzzy" concept recognizes the necessity to mix conceptual and non-stop processing, its assumption of the primacy of concept-based processing makes it evolutionarily implausible.
The textual content starts off via reviewing the origins and goals of cybernetics with specific connection with Warren McCulloch’s declared lifetime quest of "understanding man’s understanding". it truly is proven that non-stop structures can suffer complicated self-organization, yet a necessity for category of events turns into obvious and will be visible because the evolutionary starting of concept-based processing. chances for advanced self-organization are emphasised through dialogue of a common precept that has been termed value suggestions, of which backpropagation of error in neural nets is a different case.
It can also be famous that non-stop measures grow to be linked to processing that's basically concept-based, as stated in Marvin Minsky’s connection with heuristic connection among difficulties, and the linked simple studying heuristic of Minsky and Selfridge. This reappearance of continuity, besides observations at the multi-layer constitution of clever platforms, helps a very likely worthy view of intelligence as having a fractal nature. this can be such that buildings at a fancy point, interpreted by way of those emergent measures, mirror others at a less complicated point. Implications for neuroscience and synthetic Intelligence also are examined.
The publication offers unconventional and not easy viewpoints that would be of curiosity to researchers in AI, psychology, cybernetics and structures technology, and may support advertise additional research.
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Extra info for A Missing Link in Cybernetics: Logic and Continuity
The range of the angle was 28 A Missing Link in Cybernetics divided into six intervals, and the ranges of the other three variables into three intervals each, so that the total number of “boxes” was 6 × 3 × 3 × 3, or 162. The motor driving the trolley operated in what is termed “bang-bang” fashion, being always fully energised in one or the other direction. Time was suitably quantised, and at each step a decision was made as to whether the motor would drive to the left or to the right in the next interval.
A similar scheme was implemented in hardware by Gabor et al. (1961) and termed a “learning filter”, a term that has come to be applied generally to schemes of the kind. Strangely, although they referred to the device as “learning”, Gabor and his colleagues denied that it had any relation to human intelligence. This was in reply to a question from Gordon Pask following the spoken presentation of the paper (in discussion appended to the printed text). Instead, these authors stressed the classificatory aspect of human mental activity and claim that an attempt to model human intelligence should embody this from the start.
Experimental studies have failed to reveal special cells responding to discriminable categories, sometimes indicated by saying there is no “grandmother cell” (Gross 2002). Experimental results bearing on the problem have been obtained by Singer (1990), who made simultaneous recordings from pairs of neural units whose outputs might be bound at a later stage of processing. The experiment was repeated with numerous variations, ranging from relatively simple cases where recording was from primitive cortical units as described by Hubel and Wiesel (1962), to others in which the paired units were in different brain hemispheres or responded to different sensory modalities.
A Missing Link in Cybernetics: Logic and Continuity by Alex M. Andrew