;2010 Stamp Values U.S. really good by means of Grade КНИГИ ; ХОББИ и РАЗВЛЕЧЕНИЯ Автор: ScottИздательство: scott publishing Язык: английскийГод: 2009Страниц: 52Формат: pdfРазмер: 26.5 mbПредлагаемый специализированный филателистическийкаталог по градациям почтовых американских марок является последним изданием.Каталог включаетстандартные почтовые марки США по восьми степеням сохранности. Каталог богато иллюстрирован,содержит подробное описание и цены в долларах США..com zero
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Extra info for 2010 Stamp Values U.S. Specialized by Grade
Since the late 1980s, computer-aided design (CAD) systems have rapidly become much cheaper and more powerful. CAD has replaced the time-consuming and costly design and hand-engraving elements of banknote production and plastic plates are increasingly used instead of the traditional nickel plates. Many in the industry believe that the plastic plates do not produce the same definition, quality and 3D effect as the metal plates. This is disputed by the plastic plate users. Many companies retain craftsmen designers and engravers to cater for specific customer needs such as portraits, where hand engraving is still considered superior, but most of the other design elements are now produced by CAD systems.
For example, the ECB was stringent in its selection of companies to produce DOVIDs for the launch of the euro in 2002. Only five companies qualified. 9 lists the major suppliers to the banknote industry. They have quite small sales to the banknote industry; most of their DOVIDs go on other security products such as cards, brand protection, and other more commercial products. But their eligibility to produce DOVIDs for banknotes validates their security status and enhances their reputation in all the other fields.
3 shows the technology transition for CTIP. Most banknote producers have adopted KBA-Giori’s CTiP, a CTIP system specifically for use with sheet-fed presses. It allows a designer to design and assemble a banknote then output it directly in a format ready for galvanic plate reproduction. Jura has recently developed a direct laser engraver with cooperation from Komori of Japan. Many in the industry considers Jura’s CAD system to be the best on the market. The laser engraver is a logical step and a major development.
2010 Stamp Values U.S. Specialized by Grade by Scott